Saturday, September 1, 2018

Cancer Immunotherapy

                                                 

Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses certain parts of a man's invulnerable framework to battle illnesses, for example, growth. Immunotherapy utilizes our resistant framework to battle growth. It works by helping the invulnerable framework perceive and assault malignancy cells. A few kinds of immunotherapy are additionally called focused on medications or organic treatments or biotherapy. This can be done in a couple of ways:
  • Stimulating your own immune system to work harder or smarter to attack cancer cells
  • Giving your immune system components, such as man-made immune system proteins
Immunotherapy incorporates medications that work in various ways. Some lift the body's safe framework in an exceptionally broad manner. Others help prepare the safe framework to assault malignancy cells particularly. Immunotherapy works better for a few sorts of malignancy than for others. It's utilized independent from anyone else for a portion of these growths, yet for others, it appears to work better when utilized with different sorts of treatment. Natural treatment is a kind of treatment that utilizations substances produced using living beings to treat malignancy.
                               
Immune system
The invulnerable framework is a gathering of organs, exceptional cells, and substances that assistance shields us from contaminations and some different illnesses. Safe cells and the substances they make a trip through our body to shield it from germs that reason diseases. They likewise help shield us from growth in some ways. The safe framework has a harder time focusing on disease cells, however. This is on account of growth begins when cells end up adjusted and begin to become crazy. The insusceptible framework doesn't generally perceive tumour cells as remote.

Types of immunotherapy

Checkpoint inhibitors 
Which are the medications that assistance the safe framework react all the more unequivocally to a tumour. These medications work by discharging "brakes" that shield T cells from executing tumour cells. They meddle with the capacity of growth cells to keep away from insusceptible framework assault.

Adoptive cell transfer
Which is a treatment that attempts to boost the natural ability of our T cells to fight cancer T cells are taken from your tumour. They are made most active against your cancer and that are grown in large batches in the lab.

Monoclonal antibodies
MABs trigger the safe framework by appending themselves to proteins on disease cells. This makes it less demanding for the cells of the resistant framework to discover and assault the tumour cells. This procedure is called a neutralizer subordinate cell interceded cytotoxicity (ADCC). These antibodies are intended to append to particular targets found on diseased cells. Still, others convey poisons to growth cells. These restorative monoclonal antibodies perceive particular proteins on tumour cells, they are likewise considered focused on treatments.

Vaccines Treatment
Vaccines work against cancer by boosting your immune system’s response to cancer cells. There are mainly two types,

Cytokines
Which are proteins made by our body cells. They assume essential parts in the body's ordinary safe reactions and furthermore in the resistant framework's capacity to react to disease. The two principal sorts of cytokines used to treat growth are called interferon and interleukins.
BCG
 Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, is an immunotherapy that is used to treat bladder cancer. This vaccine is inserted directly into the bladder with a catheter, BCG causes an immune response against cancer cells.

Other  non-specific immunotherapies
These treatments boost the immune system in a general way, but this can still help the immune system attack cancer cells.
One reason that cancer cells thrive is that they are able to hide from our immune system. Certain immunotherapies can mark cancer cells so it is easier for the immune system to find and destroy them. Other immunotherapies boost your immune system to work better against cancer. Different forms of immunotherapy may be given in different ways. These include Intravenous(IV), Oral, Topical, Intravesical.


Wednesday, August 29, 2018

Skin Cancer

                       


It is a standout amongst the most widely recognized sort of a tumour. With early discovery and treatment, skin growth is exceptionally reparable. The most well-known cautioning indications of a skin tumour incorporate changes in size, shape, or shade of a mole or other skin sore or the presence of another development on the skin. Reasonable cleaned individuals are especially defenceless to growing most types of skin disease since they create less melanin. Melanin, the defensive colour in the external layer of skin (epidermis), shields the skin from bright (UV) light. Nonetheless, skin tumour likewise can create in dim cleaned individuals and in individuals whose skin has not had noteworthy sun introduction. Skin growths may likewise create a long time after x-beam treatment or presentation to substances that reason malignancy (for instance, ingestion of arsenic).     

                                                                 
The three main types of skin cancer are
·         Basal cell carcinoma
·         Squamous cell carcinoma
·         Melanoma
Less common types of skin cancer are
·         Paget disease of the nipple or extramammary Paget (usually near the anus).
·         Kaposi sarcoma
·         Merkel cell carcinoma
·         Atypical fibroxanthomas

Symptoms
Most skin cancers are curable, especially when treated at an early stage. At first, skin cancers do not cause any symptoms.
·         Basal-cell skin cancer (BCC) usually presents as a raised, smooth, pearly bump on the sun-exposed skin of the head, neck or shoulders. Sometimes small blood vessels can be seen within a tumour.
·         Squamous-cell skin cancer (SCC) is commonly a red, scaling, thickened patch on the sun-exposed skin. Some are firm hard nodules and dome-shaped like keratoacanthomas.  Ulceration and bleeding may occur.
·         Most melanomas consist of various colours from shades of brown to black. A small number of melanoma are pink, red or fleshy in colour; these are called amelanotic melanoma and tend to be more aggressive.
             

Causes
·         Ultraviolet radiation from sun exposure is the primary environmental cause of skin cancer.
·         Smoking tobacco.
·         HPV infections increase the risk of squamous-cell skin cancer
·         Some genetic syndromes.
·         Chronic non-healing wounds.
·         Ionizing radiation such as X-rays, environmental carcinogens, 
Diagnosis
Non-invasive skin cancer detection methods include photography, dermoscopy, sonography, confocal microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, terahertz spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, the multispectral imaging technique, thermography, electrical bio-impedance, tape stripping and computer-aided analysis.
Treatment
Larger or more invasive cancer may require removal of a significant amount of skin, which may have to be replaced with a skin graft or a skin flap.
·         With a skin graft, a piece of skin is removed from another area of the person's body, typically where the skin is loose. The piece of skin is sewn onto the area where the cancer was removed.
·         With a skin flap, doctors transfer skin from an adjacent area to replace the area where the cancer was removed. With a flap, but not with a graft, the transferred skin is not cut completely free, so it still has its own blood supply. Also, a flap is usually thicker than a graft. Other treatment methods include,

Topical medications, destruction by electrodesiccation and curettage (EDC), surgical excision, radiation therapy, Mohs micrographic surgery.

Friday, August 17, 2018

Cancer and Treatment

                                       
Cancer is the collection of diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body. When cancer develops, cells become more and more abnormal, old or damaged cells survive when they should die, and new cells form when they are not needed. These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumours. Cancerous tumours are malignant, which means they can spread into, or invade nearby tissues. Unlike malignant tumours, benign tumours do not spread into, or invade nearby tissues.
There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. Your treatment depends on where your cancer is, how big it is, whether it has spread, and your general health. There are different types of treatment you might have. Understanding your treatment and the side effects can help you to cope. Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
                              
When used to treat cancer, surgery is a procedure in which removes cancer from your body. Surgery means removing tissue from the body. Surgery is not used for some types of cancer of the blood system (leukaemia) and also some types of cancer of the lymphatic system (lymphoma). Sometimes surgery is not possible because of the position of a tumour. For example, if a tumour is near a blood vessel or other delicate tissue.

 

 

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumours. Radiotherapy means the use of radiation, usually X-rays, to treat illness. Radiotherapy destroys the cancer cells in the treated area by damaging the DNA within these cells. Although normal cells are also affected by radiation, they are better at repairing themselves than the cancer cells.  Cancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or die. When the damaged cells die, they are broken down and removed by the body. Mainly two types a) External Beam Radiation Therapy b)Internal Radiation Therapy.


Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells, which grow and divide quickly. Chemotherapy can be used to cure cancer, lessen the chance it will return, or stop or slow its growth. Chemotherapy can be used to shrink tumours that are causing pain and other problems. They work throughout your body and are called a systemic treatment

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer.  The immune system is made up of white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system. Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy is a type of treatment that uses substances made from living organisms to treat cancer. Which includes Checkpoint inhibitors, Adoptive cell transfer,  Monoclonal antibodies, Treatment vaccines, Cytokines, and BCG.

Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy is the foundation of precision medicine. It is a type of cancer treatment that targets the changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide, and spread.  Small-molecule drugs are small enough to enter cells easily, so they are used for targets that are inside cells.  Monoclonal antibodies are drugs that are not able to enter cells easily. Instead, they attach to specific targets on the outer surface of cancer cells.

                                   

Hormone Therapy

Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that slows or stops the growth of cancer that uses hormones to grow. Hormone therapy is also called hormonal therapy, hormone treatment, or endocrine therapy.  Hormone therapy can lessen the chance that cancer will return or stop or slow its growth.  It may also be used to reduce or prevent symptoms in men with prostate cancer who are not able to have surgery or radiation therapy.

Stem Cell Transplants

Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in people who have had theirs destroyed by the very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy that are used to treat certain cancers. Blood-forming stem cells are important because they grow into different types of blood cells. The main types of blood cells are WBC, RBC and platelets.
Bone Marrow transplants
The bone marrow transplant is a way of giving very high dose chemotherapy, sometimes with whole body radiotherapy. This treatment aims to try to cure some types of blood cancer such as leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma.

Precision Medicine

Precision medicine is an approach to patient care that allows doctors to select treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. This may also be called personalized medicine. The idea of precision medicine is not new, but recent advances in science and technology have helped speed up the pace of this area of research. Currently, if you need treatment for cancer, you may receive a combination of treatments, including surgerychemotherapyradiation therapy, and immunotherapy

Other Treatments

Radiofrequency ablation, Laser treatment, High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), Photodynamic therapy, Cryotherapy, Ultraviolet light treatment.  Gene therapy.


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Tuesday, July 24, 2018

 

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal malignancy happens in the colon or rectum. The term colorectal tumour is utilized to depict colon growth, rectum malignancy or both. At the point when the malignancy has spread to the liver, lungs or different destinations — treatment can help make the medical procedure a possibility for some, and also be drawing out and adding to one's personal satisfaction. Research is continually being done to take in more and give would like to individuals regardless of what arrange their disease is in.





TYPES
This tumour can start in either the colon or the rectum. At the point when the disease starts in the colon is called colon growth and it starts in the rectum is called a rectal tumour. Most colon and rectal diseases are a sort of a tumour called adenocarcinoma which is a malignancy of the phones that line within the tissue of the colon and rectum. This segment particularly covers adenocarcinoma. Different kinds of disease that happen in the colon and rectum are Gastrointestinal stromal tumours, Lymphoma, Carcinoids.
The stages of colon cancer are:
  • Stage 0: This is the most punctual stage, when a tumour is still inside the mucosa, or the internal layer, of the colon or rectum. It is additionally called carcinoma in situ.
  • Stage 1: The growth has become through the inward layer of the colon or rectum, however, has not yet spread past the mass of the rectum or colon.
  • Stage 2The a tumour has become through or into the mass of the colon or rectum, however, it has not yet achieved the adjacent lymph hubs.
  • Stage 3: Cancer has invaded the nearby lymph nodes, but it has not yet affected other parts of the body.
  • Stage 4: A  tumour has spread to different parts of the body, including different organs, for example, the liver, the film coating the stomach cavity, the lung, or the ovaries.
  • Recurrent: The tumour has returned after treatment. It might return and influence the rectum, colon, or another piece of the body.














 symptoms and signs of colorectal cancer

Side effects are the same as those of to a great degree normal conditions that are nota disease, for example, haemorrhoids and IBS. At the point when growth is suspected, these side effects more often than not have started as of late, are extreme and dependable, and change after some time. By being aware of the manifestations of colorectal growth, it might be conceivable to recognize the malady early, when it is well on the way to be dealt with effectively. Be that as it may, numerous individuals with colorectal growth don't have any side effects until the point when the malady is propelled, so individuals should be screened consistently.

People with colorectal cancer may experience the following symptoms                                            changes in bowel habits, diarrhoea or constipation, blood in feces that makes stools look black, bright red blood coming from the rectum ,pain and bloating in the abdomen , a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, fatigue or tiredness  , unexplained weight loss, a lump in the abdomen or the back passage felt by your doctor , unexplained iron deficiency in men, or in women after menopause

Risk factors

·         older age , a diet that is high in animal protein, saturated fats, and calories, a diet that is low in fibre, high alcohol consumption , ovary or uterine cancer , a family history of colorectal cancer ,  having ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or irritable bowel disease (IBD) , overweight and obesity, smoking
    Treatment
  Surgery for colorectal cancer, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Ablation Diagnosis
  Screening can detect polyps before they become cancerous, as well as detecting colon cancer during its early stages when the chances of a cure are much higher.




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Saturday, July 7, 2018

                                            Childhood Cancer and its symptoms

What is childhood cancer?

Malignancy starts when sound cells change and become crazy. In many kinds of malignancy, these phones shape a mass called a tumour. A tumour can be carcinogenic or favourable. A destructive tumour is dangerous, which means it can develop and spread to different parts of the body. A generous tumour implies a tumour can develop yet won't spread too far off parts of the body.

In leukaemia, a malignancy of the blood that begins in the bone marrow, these unusual cells once in a while frame a strong tumour. Rather these cells swarm out different kinds of cells in the bone marrow. This keeps the generation of:
·         Normal red blood cells.  Cells that carry oxygen to tissues.
·         White blood cells. Cells that fight infection.
·         Platelets. The part of the blood needed for clotting.



Risks and causes of cancer in children
Known risk factors
These include:
  • medical conditions
  • problems with development in the womb
  • exposure to infections
  • exposure to radiation
  • previous cancer treatments

v      Medical conditions
Certain conditions can increase a child's risk of developing some types of cancers. For example, children with Down's syndrome are 10 to 20 times more likely to get leukaemia than other children. Leukaemia is still very rare, even in children with Down’s syndrome.

v  Genetics
Retinoblastoma is an uncommon sort of an eye tumour. A few youngsters are conceived with a change (transformation) in the retinoblastoma quality, otherwise called the RB1 quality. This might be on the grounds that they acquired the quality from one of their folks, or on the grounds that a change happened to this quality amid the beginning times of their advancement in the womb. Most youngsters who have a change to the RB1 quality create retinoblastoma. Around 4 out of 10 youngsters analysed (40%) have this inheritable sort of retinoblastoma, which regularly influences the two eyes.

v  Problems with development in the womb
Some youth diseases, for example, Wilm's tumours (kidney growth in kids) and retinoblastomas (eye malignancy in youngsters) start when the child is still inside their mom. At the point when a child is developing in the womb, numerous parts of the body, for example, the kidneys and eyes, grow at an opportune time. At times something turns out badly and a portion of the cells that ought to have transformed into developing cells to frame a piece of the body don't. Rather, they stay as exceptionally youthful cells.

v  Exposure to infections
Epstein Barr infection (EBV) is a typical contamination in youthful youngsters. It typically causes no manifestations. Be that as it may, it can cause glandular fever (irresistible mononucleosis) in youngsters and youthful grown-ups. While a glandular fever can be exceptionally upsetting, it more often than not goes inside half a month and it doesn't imply that you go ahead to create growth. Once tainted, a man remains a bearer of EBV forever, however, the infection regularly doesn't bring about any indications whatsoever. In uncommon cases, a disease with EBV can add to the advancement of malignancies, for example, Hodgkin lymphoma and Burkett's lymphoma.
A great many people get tainted with EBV as a kid and remain contaminated for life while never encountering any side effects. Due to how regular it is, there is nothing you can do to avoid you, or your youngster, coming into contact with EBV right now.


v  Exposure to radiation
Radiotherapy is utilized as a treatment for the disease. It utilizes a kind of radiation called ionizing radiation. Kids who have radiotherapy for growth have a somewhat more serious danger of building up another kind of disease later on. In any case, the hazard is little contrasted with the hazard to their wellbeing if the first malignancy had not been treated with radiotherapy. Radon gas is a characteristic radioactive gas and it is a sort of ionizing radiation. Radon gas is found noticeable all around at a low level outside, yet it can once in a while develop to high focuses inside. Since it is a flammable gas, it is troublesome or us to control our introduction to it. By and large, thinks about so far have just proposed that there may be a frail connection between indoor levels of radon gas and danger of youth leukaemia.

v  Previous cancer treatments
Past treatment with chemotherapy can expand the danger of tumours, for example, intense leukaemia numerous years after the fact in youngsters and grown-ups.


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Cancer Immunotherapy

                                                  Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses certain parts of a man's invulnerable fra...